Land and climate change: Rights and environmental displacement in Mozambique
Mozambique is a country that is prone to natural disasters such as floods and cyclones. Climate change is increasing disaster risks. Resettlement is the major solution taken by the government to reduce the number of people living in high-risk areas. But how does such resettlement take place? Are people satisfied with their new places of living? Are they compensated for the loss of property and livelihoods they experience? And what about the people that were making use of resettled land before? This research report discusses these questions and shows realities on the ground. The report is based on a desk study of academic literature, grey sources, and relevant legislation, as well as empirical research carried out in Mozambique. We argue that there are some gaps that should be addressed in the legal protection frameworks, especially in relation to expropriation processes. To ensure that resettlement is a durable solution, people’s longer-term needs in displacement should be addressed. For this, collaboration between humanitarian and development actors is required, as well as considerable resources. Finally, we recommend that close attention is paid to the relations between old and new settlers at resettlement sites to avoid tensions.