Main applicant: The University of Nottingham (UK), SOMO (NL) and Inkrispena (Indonesia).
The flow of natural products from a fragile and conflict-affected country like Indonesia, through a supply chain that starts locally in a plantation, forest, mine or oil well, to the international markets, necessitates an accompanying flow of security involving many different security actors. In Indonesia this involves the police, army, local private security actors, national security companies, and international private military and security companies and, sometimes, non-state armed groups and criminal gangs. Combining desk-based legal and empirical research, with two case studies in Indonesia employing qualitative methods, the project will examine the nexus between, and flow of, natural products and extractives with security. The aims of this empirical study are to examine security – local, national and international – as a form of transnational flow that accompanies the flow of licit and illicit goods and services arising from the land-based natural resource and extractives sectors so as to determine the impact on the human rights of civilians and workers connected to those sectors and, on the basis thereof, to make policy proposals for the improved regulation, responsibility and accountability of the Indonesian government, business enterprises and private security providers.