Picture on this debate

Police accountability and predictability: mechanisms for peace and justice

In this blog, Gary White and Graham Mathias examine the relationships between good policing, and peace and justice. In order for policing to contribute to peace and justice, there must be trust between communities and the police. In countries like Northern Ireland, decades of conflict have tarnished this trust. What must be done to ensure policing can contribute to lasting peace and real justice?

Profile picture of Graham Mathias

Discussion started by
Graham Mathias

Police accountability and predictability: mechanisms for peace and justice

Discussion started on 30 Nov 2016, 03:03 PM

As this article goes to print the Colombian Government is engaged in reframing Colombia’s historic peace agreement. President Juan Manuel Santos recently visited Northern Ireland (NI) remarking that: “The NI peace process is a constant reminder of what is possible. We have learned from your past, admire your present and will work with you in our future.” Indeed, the NI peace process continues to be a point of learning in many parts of the world. Fundamental to the process was the issue of policing, and below we examine the links between good policing, peace and justice.

‘The strategic importance of the routine’

‘The strategic importance of the routine’ was the philosophy behind the dispensation of policing in Northern Ireland after the peace process. Operational performance, reliability and accountability are key to public trust in the police yet engaging in everyday policing was not an easy task given the lack of trust between the police and communities stemming from years of conflict. But the philosophy emphasised that peace was a process, not an event, and that the police’s part in it had to be earned. Organisational level changes such as new uniforms, badges, systems, processes and affirmative action in recruitment would be unsuccessful if the everyday encounters were negative. A police organisation can have the most sophisticated and progressive policies, but if people experience policing negatively at the individual level all of this can count for nothing.

As such, police around the world teach Locard’s exchange principle that ‘every contact leaves a trace’. This is as true of relational interactions as it is of physical contact, and helps officers to understand the strategic impact of their daily conduct. But two questions arise from this thesis that merit further attention:  What does everyday interaction with communities matter for peace and justice? And how do you connect the two?

Why does accountability matter?

Dunne and Williamson, on examining the relationship between the US Government and the current El-Sisi administration in Egypt, argued that, ‘on the face of it, counterterrorism and human rights abuses might appear to be unrelated subjects. U.S. officials certainly treat them that way; they expect Sisi to be a useful ally in fighting terrorism, while bemoaning his repression and human rights abuses. But on closer examination there is a critical connection: widespread human rights abuses threaten to push alienated Egyptians into the arms of extremist groups, as well as create a broader swath of society unwilling to help the state.’ Indeed arbitrary detentions, lack of accountability for state killings and exclusion of Islamists from aspects of political and public life means, ‘Egypt may well be fueling terrorism at a faster pace than fighting it.’[1]

Counter-terrorism, security, human rights and law enforcement are not mutually exclusive. For example, counter-terrorism measures need human rights standards to ensure that their implementation does not undermine their very purpose, which is to protect and maintain a democratic society.[2] Similarly, unaccountable policing that results in civilian casualties can change popular attitudes from neutrality to anger and even build support for more extreme groups. Indeed, heavy-handed ‘operation[s] that kill five insurgents [are] counterproductive if collateral damage leads to the recruitment of fifty more insurgents.’[3]

It is difficult to get the balance right. A key strategy adopted by terrorist organisations is to provoke violent responses from the state to justify their own behaviour as retaliatory.[4] In Northern Ireland, it was vital for police officers to understand how easily use of force (even when legally justified) can undermine popular support and fuel unrest, and that finding the sweet spot between tactical and strategic policing in a conflicted society can hinge on demonstrating the accountability, proportionality and professional conduct necessary at all levels including day-to-day interactions with the public.[5]

These approaches chime with Peter Neyroud’s concept of Rightful Policing,[6] which describes ’a third way’ that attempts to account for what the public really care about when they assess police conduct. “It doesn’t depend on the lawfulness of police conduct,” says Neyroud, “it depends primarily on the procedural justice or fairness of that conduct.” In other words, it’s routine interaction and accountability. Thinking about policing in this more qualitative way may “help us move toward police governance that is substantively, as opposed to rhetorically, democratic.”

How to connect the two?

Dunne’s article on Egypt highlighted significant levels of state repression and the radicalising effect that it has had on some ideological groups. Yet demonstrators continue to be killed and there has been no transitional justice or other mechanism to hold police and army officers accountable for their actions. Four police officers were initially convicted for an incident in which thirty-seven prisoners died after being tear-gassed inside a police vehicle, but these were overturned on appeal. This combination of an excessive and irregular use of force without accountability is toxic for peace and justice; lending further credence to the theory that the opposite (good police conduct at the tactical level and robust accountability at both individual and institutional levels) are beneficial for it.

But accountability is only possible with oversight, which serves to ensure that the quality of everyday encounters between police and citizens is positive and preventative rather than a cause or driver of conflict. Oversight is as much about culture as it is about formal mechanisms, which correlates to George Kelling’s deduction that ‘the primary determinant of police officer behaviour is the culture in which they find themselves.’ [7]  And so perhaps accountability is the most effective way to wed routine policing operations to fostering a culture of public service that contributes to longer-term peace and justice.

The police are ‘citizens in uniform’[8] and effective policing depends upon trusting relationships between themselves and the communities they serve. That may sound idealistic, but there is a practical incentive as well as a moral obligation here. Even in technologically advanced societies with access to modern crime fighting innovations, the vast majority of crimes are still solved or prevented as a result of information and action coming from the community. Unfortunately we know that trust is slowly won but can be quickly lost.  Police in many jurisdictions are often considered the primary cause of insecurity, and even in more benign environments police practices can be oppressive, aggressive and transgress laws and protocol. This is often excused by the difficult operating environment police face. But of course, even if case clearances improve in the short term, unaccountable and abusive behaviour only makes an environment more difficult to police over the longer period as the public begin to distrust and turn away from the state providers.

Policy frameworks are important but not enough to prevent this. They are supposed to ensure high quality service delivery but policies do not always become routine practice and translated into operational culture. For example the South African policy on dealing with protests (Standing Order 262) says ‘the use of force should be avoided at all costs,’ yet at Marikana on 16th August 2012, police fired over 700 rounds of live ammunition, killing 34 miners and wounding almost 80. This could be seen in large part as the result of a culture of impunity that had developed within South African policing. Kelling, again, offers advice as to how to counteract the effects of a negative policing culture – leadership through values, accountability to the community and accountability within the force.

We saw this in Northern Ireland, where the police reform programme has resulted in it becoming one of the most scrutinised policing organisations in the world. Significant changes in behaviour, especially around the use of force, were manifest, but more revealingly, a transformation in the culture of the organisation and of individual officers is what has mattered most for peace and justice. While most outside observers assume that Northern Ireland is ‘fixed,’ that’s not quite the reality. There are still those who are committed to violence, however they remain a tiny fraction of society with dwindling support and a lack of justification for their actions. Take the example from 2011 when a young catholic police officer from a ‘republican’ background was murdered. The reaction to his death was a coming together of communities to condemn it and, in a peace vigil held in his home village (a place where there was previously deep hostility towards the police), hundreds of people held placards saying ‘not in my name’. 

Good policing that contributes to peace and justice is about developing a culture of public service within a system of governance and accountability that creates rule-based predictability and consequence. Without these, what incentives are there for citizens to uphold the rule of law themselves and work with the police towards more peaceful and just societies?

Gary White MBE has served as a police officer for over thirty years in Northern Ireland, reaching the rank of Assistant Chief Constable. He has held a variety of roles, including at the operational, tactical and strategic levels, and has been instrumental in the development of ground-breaking concepts such as ‘minimum use of force’, ‘negotiation with protesters’ and the ‘facilitation of peaceful protest’.  He also wrote the policy and implementation plan for community policing in Northern Ireland, and was subsequently recognised for introducing practical initiatives that became embedded in operational policing.

Since leaving the police service, Mr White has worked as a consultant in such roles as Deployable Civilian Expert to the British Government’s Stabilisation Unit, and Senior Policing Adviser to Saferworld. Recently, he was appointed as a lead trainer with the OSCE and is advising Amnesty International and the United Nations on policing guidelines.

Graham Mathias policing expertise draws from over 30 years spent with the Metropolitan Police Service which included a number of secondments as policing advisor to other countries' governments. He has also spent time working as a policing adviser with the FCO, DfID and the UK Government's Security and Justice Group (Stabilisation Unit) amongst others. Graham helped the UK government develop guidelines for UK police officers sent on overseas peace support missions and was engaged with developing material for the OECD-DAC guidelines on security sector reform. Graham is a fellow of the Chartered Institute of Personnel Development and has an MSc in Economics. Since 2002 Graham has worked with Saferworld as a part-time adviser on policing and security and justice sector development. Since then he has worked on these issues in Albania, Georgia, Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi, Moldova, Sri Lanka, Sudan and Yemen.

[1] See Appendix One (paper prepared by K. Pennington)

[2] Office for Security and Cooperation in Europe, “Countering Terrorism, Protecting Human

Rights,” OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, (Warsaw, 2007), p. 21

[3] US Army & Marine Corp. (2007), Counterinsurgency Field Manual. (COIN) Chicago.  The University of Chicago Press.

[4] Jason Franks (2005), Rethinking the Roots of Terrorism: Orthodox Terrorism Theory and Beyond, Hampshire: Palgrave McMillan

[5] These issues are explored substantially in the Saferworld publication ‘Reflections on NI Experience’

[6] Peter Neyroud, Former Chief Constable and leading academic on UK Policing  Rightful Policing: Kennedy Sch Gov. Harvard – Executive Session on Policing and Public Policy -Tracey L. Meares, with Peter Neyroud

[7] George Kelling: Criminologist - Author of the Broken Windows theory of Crime Control

[8] Quote from- Sir Robert Peel – Founder of the London Metropolitan Police

8 replies Write your reply

Profile picture of Christopher Nolan

Reply posted by
Christopher Nolan

Reply posted on 15 Dec 2016, 12:27 PM

This is imperative since it resources important impartiality needle be supposed to simply calculate recognized impartiality except integrity as it is Pay someone to do my homework online unstated along with admittance in the vicinity.

Profile picture of Sabrina Steinman

Reply posted by
Sabrina Steinman

Reply posted on 25 Dec 2016, 03:01 PM

Police must do their job, but it must be within the law. Good policing that contributes to peace and justice is about developing a culture of public service within a system of governance and accountability that creates rule-based predictability and consequence. I totally agree with that!

Sabrina from meetwife.com

Profile picture of Sabrina Steinman

Reply posted by
Sabrina Steinman

Reply posted on 25 Dec 2016, 03:01 PM

Police must do their job, but it must be within the law. Good policing that contributes to peace and justice is about developing a culture of public service within a system of governance and accountability that creates rule-based predictability and consequence. I totally agree with that!

Sabrina from meetwife.com

Profile picture of hernald

Reply posted by

junioe excutive

Reply posted on 09 Feb 2017, 08:30 AM

Adobe has released a plethora of editing tools over the last couple of years. Included are some of the best photo editor apps available. online photo editing apps

Profile picture of jowpxzf001 jowpxzf001

Reply posted by
jowpxzf001 jowpxzf001

Reply posted on 06 Jul 2017, 03:53 AM

Whether you are looking for beach casual, business casual, evening attire or any other style that you can think of, Ralph Lauren has it to offer. Each store displays current trends of clothing line that are most popular and in season. Following the line of trend and yet remaining unique is what they does best and has made them the guru of men's fashion.. Der Umsatz belief sich auf 4,35 Mrd. US-Dollar. Investoren warten jetzt auf den 31. Für das Wertpapier von Michael Kors steht gegenwärtig ein Wertanstieg 1,48 Prozent zu Buche. Die Aktie verteuerte sich um 52 Cent. Derzeit zahlen Anleger an der Börse für das Papier 35,61 US-Dollar. It louboutin basket femme is no wonder that men desire the sophisticated and yet down to earth style over any other. It is also no surprise that they would tell their friends where to shop when they are in need of great michael kors geldbörse attire for any event, season or lifestyle. Be the best dressed man at the party, the beach or at work when you shop Ralph Lauren.. Ralph Lauren clothing line provides innovative quality into every seam of their clothing line provided for men both, both business and casual. Beginning with ties forty years ago, the company has grown to be a world wide provider of top of the line polos, chinos, dress borse michael kors attire, jeans, suits and more. Whether you are shopping in stores or online, you are taken into the world of Ralph polo ralph lauren Lauren at a level like no other.. So folgt auf Platz vier die Kelly-Bag von Hermès, auf fünf die 2.55 von Chanel, michael kors borse danach die City-Bag von Balenciaga, Boy von Chanel, die Neverfull von Louis Vuitton. Die komplette Liste samt Taschen-Fakten für den Mode-Smalltalk gibt es hier. Richtig überraschend ist unter all den sicheren Nummern von Gucci, Céline, Dior & Co. In totale raggiungerà louboutin pas cher femme 39 paesi in America, Europa e Asia. NEW YORK, 15 SET - Romantica e forte allo stesso tempo: una Barbara Stanwyck, orfana a 4 anni che nel 1944 louboutin soldes divenne la donna più pagata d'America, o una Kim Basinger per guardare michael kors bags uk sale più vicino a noi, sono le muse michael kors outlet che ha avuto in mente Michael Kors nei sei mesi in borsa michael kors cui ha disegnato la sua prossima collezione non più pensata per la primavera-estate, ne' per l'autunno-inverno, ma per un mondo "molto complicato" e "sempre più difficile, un mondo pieno di drammi e paure e in cui non esistono più' le louboutin pas cher stagioni. Un ottimista per indole, lo stilista americano e' convinto che, anche in questo mondo, "la moda può cambiare il tuo spirito" e michael kors taschen agisce e disegna di conseguenza. Val Garland, visionario make up artist, ha applicato sulla bocca michael kors outlet delle modelle delle rose essiccate michael kors bags outlet che mimano il rossetto, fiordalisi sopra le guance e fiori di campo sul décolleté. Ritorna anche l'eye liner a fiori, proposto l'anno scorso da una blogger norvegese con fiori disegnati a mano, questa primavera, invece, su Instagram sono apparsi degli occhi contornati da fiori veri, mini bouquet sopra la linea cheap ralph lauren shirts dell'eyeliner. Stranezze a parte, le palette trucco si rinnovano con motivi floreali decorati michael kors taschen sale sia sul pack sia direttamente sulle polveri.

Bis zum 15. Juli haben Interessenten die Möglichkeit, direkt im Laden, per E-Mail unter info@elbe-taschen.de oder auf der Facebook-Seite unter „Ahoi Stade“ ein Gebot abzugeben. Namen und E-Mail-Adresse nicht vergessen, damit der oder die Höchstbietende michael kors outlet benachrichtigt werden kann! Im Sommer 2015 wagte Carola Arndt-Vöge mit einer ungewöhnlichen Geschäftsidee den Sprung in michael kors portafogli die Selbstständigkeit. Vor zwei Jahren eröffnete Raumausstatterin Carola Arndt-Vöge ihr Fachgeschäft „AHOI - Planentaschen-Manufaktur und PolsterWerkstatt“ an der Kehdinger Straße 22 in Stade. Den Firmengeburtstag feiert sie mit zwei besonderen Aktionen. Zum einen gewährt sie zwischen dem 15. Und hoffentlich auch all jene zum Umdenken bewegen, die auf die „Gabrielle Bag“ von Chanel sparen. Habt Mut zur Maschine! Man will doch mit der Zeit gehen. Hermès hat den Ruf, die besten Taschen der Welt zu fertigen. In diesem Beitrag handelt es sich um eine It-Bag, die mit keiner anderen zu vergleichen ist! Die Rede ist von der neuen Tasche aus Jute mit Zara-Logo: Wie Marie Claire schon richtig erkannt hat, ist der Shopper perfekt für den Lebensmittel-Einkauf! Jetzt können müssen wir Plastik-Tüten endgültig vergessen: Anstatt christian louboutin chaussures femme die jedes Mal einzukaufen (so doof!), nehmen wir gleich die Jute-Tasche mit. Durch ihre Größe passt aber auch wirklich alles rein, inklusive Milch, Avocados, Pizza und was wir sonst noch alles lieben. Achtung, cheap polo ralph lauren outlet im folgenden Beitrag könnten akute Fernweh-Gefühle bei euch hochkommen. Ces 150 millions d'euros aideront Sigfox à déployer des réseaux mondiaux permettant de relier à internet toute une gamme d'objets connectés, allant des machines ralph lauren sale à laver aux compteurs électriques. Il est compatible avec le Wifi, la 2G ou la 3G. En février 2015, l'entreprise toulousaine, fondée en 2009 par l'entrepreneur Ludovic Le Moan, avait levé 100 millions d'euros, notamment auprès des groupes industriels français Engie et Air Liquide, de l'opérateur de télécommunications espagnol Telefonica, du japonais NTT Docomo et du sud-coréen SK Telecom, et de Bpifrance. Puntuale eco di primavera, il flower power ritorna. Fiori negli abiti, Michael Kors ha proposto un trench tutto fiorito, Valentino e Giambattista Valli hanno scelto preziosi ricami floreali su abiti chiari. Fiori nella tavola, nei quadri, Monet diceva «se sono diventato pittore, forse lo devo ai fiori», nella lettura e negli accessori, vedi le borse di Gucci con fiori simile-broccato e i michael kors uk decorati secchielli bucolici di Etro. Designer Michael Kors macht es vor. Während der Hippie-Zeit der 60er-Jahre wurde wohl keine Tasche mehr gefeiert als die Hobo-Bag. Und wir dürfen uns jetzt wieder freuen, denn die etwas größeren knautschigen Taschen sind zurück.

Realizzato da Arcus Real Estate, società della galassia Percassi, sarà aperto tutto l'anno tranne a Natale e Capodanno. Simbolo dell'Outlet Village un obelisco di 85 metri. "Dà lavoro a 600 persone, tra addetti alle vendite e store manager, mille con l'indotto, ma il numero raddoppierà con il completamento del progetto", sottolinea Antonio Percassi, presidente di louboutin homme pas cher Percassi. For years, male celebrities such as Lebron James, Lance Armstrong and Kevin Costner have raved about the christian louboutin soldes feel and look of the styles offered by Ralph Lauren. The great thing about this company is that you don't have to be a celebrity to dress like one. Many everyday people enjoy what Ralph Lauren has to offer their customers world wide. “Macy’s, Nordstrom, and Dillard’s DDS, +10.15% called out weakness in women’s accessories, with Nordstrom particularly noting softness in jewelry and handbags and higher-volume brands,” the note said. “Importantly, while Kate Spade (25%) and Coach (5%) have much more limited wholesale exposure, Michael Kors’ wholesale segment is much larger at 50% of total sales. Thus, Michael Kors is more exposed to the continued softening in this channel.”. Les nouveaux fonds levés par l'entreprise lui permettront de déployer son réseau international dans 60 pays ralph lauren australia d'ici 2018 contre 26 actuellement. Sigfox est en concurrence avec le réseau Jasper de l'américain Cisco. La startup se rémunère sur la vente de forfaits de connectivité aux industriels qui vont, selon les volumes, de 1 euro à 10 euros par objet et par an. Auch Bezüge borse michael kors prezzi von Judo- und Turnmatten sowie Bootsverdeckstoff dienen als Ausgangsstoff. „Die Taschen sind wasserdicht und strapazierfähig und äußerst vielfältig einsetzbar“, sagt cheap michael kors bags Carola Arndt-Vöge. „Das Spektrum reicht von kleinen Formaten zur Aufbewahrung von Stiften oder anderen Kleinigkeiten bis zu Rucksäcken und Umhängetaschen.“ Weiteres Standbein des Unternehmens ist die Polsterwerkstatt. Vor allem die Geschäfte in Europa und den USA liefen schlecht, teilte das für seine Handtaschen und Schuhe bekannte US-Unternehmen am Mittwoch mit. Das konnten Zuwächse in Asien nicht ausgleichen. Der Konzernumsatz sackte im ersten Quartal um rund elf Prozent auf 1,06 Milliarden Dollar ab. La Palette occhi dedicata è composta da 39 tonalità luminose, tra cui l’intera gamma dei nude, dei rosa e della pesca passando per i beige, i marroni, i talpa e i grigi da provare da sole o con la matita nera. Pretty Kisses (Dolci Baci) è un trio mini di fragranze in tonalità piccanti. Infine le perle da bagno profumate da spargere dentro all’acqua per un momento di relax.

Zieht man den S&P 500 als Benchmark hinzu, dann liegt die Aktie von Michael Kors vorn. Der S&P 500 kommt mit einem Punktestand von 2.437 Punkten derzeit auf ein Plus von michael kors tasche schwarz 0,07 Prozent gegenüber der Schlussnotierung vom Vortag. Die Michael Kors-Aktie hatte am 26. Ob in mädchenhaften Pastelltönen, glitzernd oder michael kors borse outlet elegant – diese Bags begeistern in völlig neuem LookDen Look der Stars online nachkaufen und sind damit nicht mehr nur michael kors bags on sale beim Wandern oder auf Festivals unsere Begleiter, sondern auch beim entspannten Stadtbummel total angesagt und ein absoluter Hingucker! Manchmal kommt es eben doch auf die Größe an. Neben XXS-Taschen werden wir in michael kors taschen outlet diesem Sommer auch übergroße Modelle zu sehen bekommen. Der sprichwörtlich große Vorteil: Wir christian louboutin chaussures pas cher müssen michael kors italia nicht überlegen, was wir mitnehmen wollen. Flight ralph lauren outlet australia Club a aidé à identifier les marques et les styles des chaussures. Nos confrères de Business Insider US ont fait de leur mieux pour trouver des photos de femmes qui portent des baskets, mais sans grand succès. Les femmes de pouvoir comme Sheryl Sandberg et Marissa Mayer portent des talons bas ou des chaussures basses. Die sorgt in polo ralph lauren outlet online der Modewelt seit einiger Zeit für Aufruhr: Ist der Plastikeinkaufstaschen-Look cooles Understatement, eine ironische Multikulti-Referenz – oder doch ein peinlicher Flirt mit dem einfachen Leben? Die Mini-„Bazar“ mit Umhängegurt passt jedenfalls perfekt zu gut situierten michael kors outlet uk Geizhälsen, die ständig von der tollen Qualität bei Lidl schwärmen und ihr Obst nur beim Türken um die Ecke kaufen. Um 645 Euro. Die angesagteste Taschenform der Saison möchte bitte nicht als „Beutel“ beschimpft, sondern „Cinch Bag“ genannt werden. fashionette michael kors Il profumo di carte artigianali tipiche fiorentine invadono i piccoli vicoli della città andando a michael kors handbags uk fondersi con odori di pelli conciate delle antiche botteghe. Florentia, cattura l’essenza di rosa speziata, legno e cuoio e li unisce a oli essenziali di bergamotto italiano, patchouli, vetiver indonesiani e mirra della Somalia, un mix caldo e ambrato, tutte materie prime naturali che arrivano dal mondo: bergamotto d’Italia, essenza di Gaiac del Paraguay, mirra della Somalia, essenza di vetiver dell’Indonesia, bacche rosa dell’Isola di Reunion, essenza ralph lauren polo shirts sale di Coriandolo. La texture associata alla fragranza ricorda le michael kors handtaschen outlet preziose carte fiorentine. Die Stepptasche „Timeless“ von Chanel, die „Speedy“ von Louis Vuitton, die „Birkin“ von Hermès: Das sind die drei Handtaschen, die im Vintage-Onlineshop Vestiaire Collective am häufigsten weiterverkauft werden. Dies ergab eine Rangliste, die der Shop jüngst veröffentlichte. Auch beim Rest der 25 beliebtesten Modelle handelt sich weitestgehend um Handtaschen-Klassiker der großen Marken, um Modelle, deren Anschaffung viele Frauen mit der Erklärung begründen, sie kämen ja nicht so schnell aus der Mode und seien regelrechte Investitionen in die modische Zukunft.HMM20170610

Profile picture of jowpxzf001 jowpxzf001

Reply posted by
jowpxzf001 jowpxzf001

Reply posted on 31 Jul 2017, 11:24 AM

Trotz der Tatsache, dass die handbagsnbspShop bereit michael kors online shop Shop-Handtaschen zu tragen Geschäft bereit Shop Schuhe Store locator Geschäft 2014 Balenciaga zu tragen.. Zu diesem Anlass trug ich dieses Kleid von Asos und mein michael kors ohrstecker Favorit und michael kors ohrringe bequeme Stiefel mit meiner untrennbare Tasche.. Wir würden Karten oder Monopoly spielen und Mitsingen zu Robs Lieblings michael kors schal doo wop Songs. So zum Beispiel eine necklexpert oder getory. Für die gleiche Menge von 1 Immobilien in michael kors tasche NYC kaufen sie drei in Miami. Wurde erwartet ihr Tod. Erstens ist die schwarze Version michael kors tasche mit Blue Reißverschlüsse, die eine michael kors outlet Wolverine Pelzhaube michael kors sale getrimmt kennzeichnet.. Diese verpflichten Absicht sonst viele pissen als alle behalten serve.. Die michael kors taschen sale erste Option, die wir Michael Kors Outlet, Michael Kors Outlet Online, Michael Kors Outlet Online-Verkauf, Michael Kors Beutel, Michael Kors Handtaschen-Motoren verwendet wird, um eine neu erstellte Motor gehen zu vergleichen. Diese Waren können online erworben werden, sondern darüber hinaus die Augen offen zu halten.

Wenn die Werkzeuge eine Person für ihre Arbeit davon abhängt, zu ihnen gehören, Online-Longchamp Outlet, können wir oft Dinge beobachten: Sie Werkzeuge kaufen, die am besten mit ihren http://www.ridorlive.com eigenen Stärken auszurichten und ihnen helfen, die beste Arbeit tun können, sie, Taschen Longchamp Hobo, Sie wird in michael kors outlet der Regel von guter Qualität Werkzeuge wählen die Wahl haben, weil sie michael kors halskette mit billigen Umgang zu verschwenden haben nicht Zeit, die Longchamp Handtaschen zu brechen, und sie http://www.muraton.net kaufen sie von Unternehmen, die hinter ihnen stehen und wird mehr zahlen michael kors ohrstecker einen besseren Service zu bekommen.. Air Jordans Schuhe in einem sehr soliden Mantel aus weißem, verfügen die Turnschuhe, die gemeinsame Entwicklung ballistischem Nylon und Lackleder auf alle anderen nicht low top Air Jordan elf Modelle genutzt werden. In allen Bedingungen außerhalb michael kors taschen des http://www.streetdeal.de Hauses billig lv bookbags Arbeiten sollten mit zufriedenstellenden Hitze nach und nach http://www.quicksharehq.com entwickeln. Aber zuerst gibt es eine Geschichte von http://www.michaelkorsonline.de einem Mädchen, das Musik liebte und einer michael kors taschen Stimme, die ihr geholfen haben, die in einen Job lieben.

Werden alle Level 2 Spam-E-Mails an Sie in Ihrem Junk-Mail-Ordner zu michael kors handyhülle liefern, so dass Sie durch sie zu michael kors outlet sortieren und zu halten, was Sie wollen. Sie können ihre Weitsicht stehen die Waren wiederum ein Ergebnis der Volumen Producing sind, Ogden prognostiziert, haben michael kors taschen günstig Händler Möglichkeiten, um Benutzern realisiert das Gefühl, dass ein Verfahren in vielen Fällen zu personalisieren geschieht wirklich nur in ihrem Kopf ... Die 49ers beendeten 5 11 und waren nie ein Faktor im http://www.hamawy.net NFC West.USA TODAYNFL Coaching-Uhr: Tom Coughlin, Chuck Pagano warten, um Schicksale auf schwarzem Montag zu erlernen Tomsula war nie in der http://www.dirtytalk-camgirls.de Lage, in seinem ersten Jahr http://www.bodystones.de als Cheftrainer erfolgreich zu sein. Solche Fragen und Faktoren können Ihren Genuss während Ihres Lagers behindern. Niemand hat getan, was ich erreicht habe und ich http://www.forexrobotscop.com glaube, ich bin der richtige Mann, um Nigeria zurückzukehren, um Ruhm Tage in Afrika und michael kors taschen sale der WeltJo BonfrereFormer Nigeria Trainer' Ich habe in Nigeria lange Zeit in der Vergangenheit gearbeitet und ich weiß, michael kors outlet was zu tun ist, um die Super Eagles wieder fliegen zu können ', sagte Bonfrere BBC Sport am Telefon aus den Niederlanden.' Ich liebe Nigeria, weil das meine Fußballmentalität ist Die meisten zu Hause und ich habe eine fantastische Beziehung mit den Menschen dort 'Bonfrere hinzugefügt.Die Nigeria Football Federation (NFF) Präsident Amaju Pinnick hat http://www.haus-mentler.de gesagt, sie haben keine Pläne, einen lokalen Trainer auf einer permanenten Basis zu ernennen.Current unter 23 Trainer Samson Siasia wird Für Nigerias Nationen-Pokal-Qualifikationen gegen Ägypten http://www.lightintheboxweddingdresses.com später diesen Monat.Bonfrere glaubt, michael kors handyhülle dass er der richtige Mann ist, um Oliseh langfristig michael kors taschen sale erfolgreich michael kors outlet zu sein.

Profile picture of adehindasa

Reply posted by


Reply posted on 14 Sep 2017, 05:21 AM

Umpan merupakan yang terpenting dalam memancing, karena tidak ada umpan tidak ada ikan. Maka dari itu kami akan beri resep umpan ikan patin yang jitu. loading is service essen ikan patin galatama

Download document

Write your reply:

In order to join this discussion you need to
log in or register.

Subscribe to our monthly newsletter